Kostomarov, for example) associate this period with a reign of three hetmans – protege of Moscow Kingdom (Ivan Brukhovetsky, Damien Mnogogrishny and Ivan Samoilovich), therefore they make chronological (1663-1687) and territorial (Left Side Ukraine) boundaries of Ruina period. Other historians (B. Krupnitsky, f. ex.) considered Ruina as referring both to Left and Right Side Ukraine and continuing since death of Bohdan Khmelnitsky till the beginning of Ivan Mazepa reign (1657-1687).
In times of Ruina, Ukraine was separated into Left Side and Right Side (by the line of Dnipro River), and these parts were enemies to each other. Neighboring countries (Poland, Moscowia, Turkish Ottoman Empire) meddled with Ukraine inner matters, so Ukrainian politics was noted by attempts to keep friendly relations with some of occupational powers. In 1686, Ukrainian Orthodox Church was submitted to Moscow Patriarchy. Most of Ukrainian leaders of that period were narrow-viewed people unable to obtain the wide masses support of their politics (Ivan Brukhovetsky, Myhajlo Khanenko, Yuriy Khmelnitsky, Damien Mnogogrishny, Stepan Opara, Ivan Sirko, Yakiv Somko, Petro Sukhoviy, Pavlo Teterya).
Hetmans that sacrificed all their strength to lead Ukraine out from that decadence: Ivan Vygovsky, Petro Doroshenko. Read more on Last.fm. User-contributed text is available under the Creative Commons By-SA License; additional terms may apply..
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